Architectural sights in Iran

 In 2001 Iran has visited 1402 thousand foreign tourists (the income of them has made 1122 million dollars). The traditional tourist route «the Silk way» operates. The main architectural monuments: ruins of the ancient cities of Chogha-Zam-bil (12 century BC), sepulchral tower Gomad-e-Kevus, the main relic of Shiites — mosque Astan-e-Gods-e-Rezavi in Meshed, palaces in Shiraz and Isfahan, the mausoleums of poets of Saadi and Hafis in Shiraz, Khayyam's Lobster in Nishapur, east markets (especially beautiful in Isfahan, Kerman, Meshed). Sea resorts: Enzeli (Caspian Sea), island Kish (Persian Gulf), mountain-skiing — in mountains Elburs near Teheran and Tabriz.


     Architectural traditions of Iran – one of the richest in the world. Persians the first became use mathematics, geometry and astronomy in architecture. Besides the first began to erect massive dome-shaped roofs which crown mosques. The main buildings of classical Iranian architecture – mosques and palaces. Besides, in territory of Iran there are many of the most valuable archaeological ruins and the remained architectural sights of an antiquity.


Persepolis – the most unique monument of ancient Persian architecture VI-V of centuries BC Its majestic and ornated palaces were considered as the sample of architecture of that epoch, a pearl of ancient Persian architecture. The ruins which have remained from them impress and to this day.


     Acts of Persian King Dariy are so numerous what to list all of them it is simply impossible. It waged wars, went a campaign to Egypt, tried to subdue Scythians and even to strike blow to powerful Athens, strengthened borders of the extensive state stretched from Bosporus to Indus, from Caspian to Mediterranean sea and Persian gulf.


     Special attention Dariy gave to building. It has based the well-known residence in a city which ancient Greeks named Persepolis.


     Long time was considered, that Persepolis was capital of Ancient Iran, but last researches show, that tsars came there seldom and for a short while – only for rest or participation in celebrations and holidays.


     Grandiose and majestic palaces of a city decorated reliefs on huge granite plates, multi-colored tiles, a monumental sculpture. Time, acts of nature, infinite wars undermined ancient monuments, erased from them paints, and together with them creations of remarkable masters disappeared. Persepolis was lost from a fire during a campaign to Middle East Alexander the Great. In 1965 in Iran the plan of restoration of an ancient city has been developed.


Ancient Sghts in Iran are Built by the most considerable governors of the world.


     Dariy has based the country palace in the middle of a valley closely adjoining a rocky mountain Kuh-and-ramat – the Grief of Favor. Constructions of Persepolis were established on a huge platform in the size 500x350 meters, with height in twenty meters. In a platform have been laid plumbing and sanitary.


     The monumental ladder with 106 steps of eight-meter width, each of which cut-out from the integral stone block, conducts to Collars of all people. Through these Gate there is no time there passed to Dariy with gifts messengers from the people subdued by it.


     Further the way goes in Apadana – a smart palace. It was the huge square hall which each party was equaled to 85 meters. Arches of Apadana leant against 72 stone columns. On columns of the master cut out the bas-reliefs reproducing scenes of a court life.


     All construction occupied the space over 1000 square meters. Only 13 columns which supported flat overlapping up to now have remained. These columns have been widely placed in due time, that created the free and well shined space.


     To the south from Apadana ruins of Tripilion – the Hall of meetings, to the east – ruins of the Hall of hundred columns (the size 70х70 meters) lay. It was even more than Apadan’s, and over its construction worked 10 thousand masters. On few remained reliefs of the Hall of hundred columns it is possible to see images of soldiers.


     The architectural ensemble of Persepolis included and many other constructions, for many centuries time could not wipe their ruins off the face of the earth.


Mausoleum of Kir Great
     For a long time the tomb of the great Persian governor known for the scientist managed to be found only in 1952, among ruins of Pasargaday, in the south of Iran. 2500 the construction was in more or less comfortable conditions, therefore up to now has lived in a good condition.


Kir II Great was the founder and the governor of huge Persian empire about 539 years BC up to the death in 530th.


     Pavsargada was capital of Persia in days of Kir Great. But Dariy has transferred capital to Persepolis – and Pasargada has gradually fallen into decay, now from it there were one only ruins. However mausoleum of Kir has remained.


     Great Tomb of Kir is made of white limestone and height it – only 11 meters. A tomb 5 and a half meters, and a step platform – too five and a half.
The peaked, inclined roof is laid out from five huge stones.


     Under the description this mausoleum completely coincides with what so long searched. So to doubt its authenticity it is not necessary.
     In this tomb there is an input with double doors, the leader in a room without windows in which once there was sarcophagus of Kir Great. Now the mausoleum – only an empty cover.


     To plunder this tomb had begun in days of Alexander the Great in spite of the fact that Alexander in every possible way aspired to preserve it and executed robbers. Even in spite of the fact that those did not manage especial to profit by anything. The great Persian commander has been buried very modestly.