Objects of national culture of the tajik people

For a long time the people of Tajikistan are famous for creations national masters, handicraftsmen. These skilful hands within many centuries created fabrics, ware, musical instruments, carpets, pieces of furniture, jeweler ornaments both many other things. And all from natural ecologically pure raw materials. Today many of these a prophetic steel souvenirs which are appreciated especially by the foreign visitors visiting the Central Asia and Tajikistan, in particular. In Tajikistan there are whole dynasties of national masters which transfer ancient art from generation to generation.

Art fabrics
     The most ancient kind of a national Tadjik craft – weaving. The most widespread kinds of the Tadjik fabrics are:
     Zandona – it is known with ancient time, was widespread in Maverannahr‚ Khurasan‚ Iran‚ and also in Ancient Russia‚ the Scandinavian countries‚ China and Arabian Halifat. The centre of its manufacture was in the settlement with the same name near Bukhara. During epoch of Samanids it was exported to the various countries‚ had as glazed painted‚ and figured form, sometimes decorative patterned in the way of the central bandaging which have laid down in a basis of abr (cloud shaped) decorative pattern. Zandona the truth, in more perfective aspect has reached and up to now.
     Alocha – a bright, multi-colored striped matter from silk and a clap. Its smooth surface is poured and flickers. Now national masters of the Gissarsky valley of Tajikistan prepare different kinds of alochi. In a life, basically, two its kinds were used: zebak and faranchi (from the European thread).
     Bekasam – a multi-color semi silk matter. An ornament - striped, figured. It is made by national masters of Samarkand‚ Bukhara‚ Tashkent‚ Kokand. In modern Tajikistan to snipes let out, basically, karakat’s national masters. The fabric is very popular in local residents and today.
     Brocade – the silk matter known all over the world. Dresses from brocade put on the big holidays.
     Karbos – a cotton matter‚ the most widespread kind of a fabric in Central Asia. Produced in Samarkand‚ Bukhara (Uzbekistan) and Karatag (Tajikistan).
     Shohi-kamus – a silk fabric‚ very dense with rich drawing. It used for sewing of smart dresses and head scarves.

Art embroidery
     Rare weaved product at Tadjiks is deprived a national art embroidery. The Central Asian women embroidered from time immemorial, but in XIX century the embroidery became there to one of the most developed, popular and prospering kinds of a folk art. In mountains of Tajikistan of the skilled worker decorated clothes the embroidered patterns. Cattlemen wandering in steppes created surprising embroideries on the beauty, yurtas intending for furniture, embroidered silks headdresses.

     This art has ancient roots‚ and it continues to develop and widely to be used in decorative pattern carpets‚ textiles‚ clothes and souvenirs. Tadjiks by means of special needles with use of cotton‚ woolen and silk threads, and also precious and semiprecious stones embroider.
     The most ancient the centers of an embroidery of Tadjiks are northern areas of Tajikistan: Hurrah-Tjube‚ Khojend‚ Isfara‚ Kanibadam‚ Asht‚ Pendjikent.

     Sisane. So name – the big rectangular embroidered panel on a wall — the main and invariable ornament of the Tadjik house, on beauty not conceding to a carpet. The tradition to decorate it dwelling is known from time immemorial. The embroidery kind susane as is called susane, that in transfer with Persian means «sewn needles». Susane embroider on a velvet‚ silk‚ cotton fabrics. The most known susane are Samarkand‚ Bukhara (Uzbekistan)‚ Yuratubinian’s (Tajikistan).
     Band – the decorative embroidery of mountain Tadjiks decorating some subjects. The band ornament on the composite system carries verged‚ tape character.
     Rumol – the zone cotton scarves of men decorated with an embroidery of different color - a seam basma or a bilateral smooth surface. Prevail, basically, the patterns of vegetative character reminding the Arabian font.
     Embroidery also decorate: borpush (coverlet)‚ joynamoz (a rug for pray reading)‚ kars (scarf)‚ ruidjo (coverlet)‚ zardevor (for an ornament of walls of the house)‚ oinahalta (for mirrors‚ personal things).

Decorative carving
     All who though time has visited Tajikistan knows how much actually for local resident’s art of a decorative carving. It decorates architecture monuments, life subjects, musical instruments, ware, doors, frames, souvenirs and so forth This one of the most ancient and widespread crafts of Tajikistan. Distinguish woodcarving (ware, furniture), to a stone and gancha (architectural monuments, houses, furnish of premises).
     Earlier in a similar carving images of people and animals were widely used. With Islam distribution, they gradually disappear from creativity and their place occupies a considerable quantity of the Arabian inscriptions. Some carvers prefer "vegetative", geometrical patterns. The carving in a kind tetraphyllous on a red-black list is inherent in subjects of house utensils small nail shaped. For architecture it is characteristic decorative pattern by colors of a lotus, a tulip and other colors.

     Besides mosques and medrese, the carving on a stone was used for registration of gravestones and the mausoleums. All elements of a carving now can be met in architecture of modern houses.