Customs and traditions in Tajikistan

Traditions of the people of Tajikistan developed centuries of a way of life. They were showed in national Tadjik dwelling which can be divided into two types: flat, differing big architectural complexity, and mountain, more simple on a design. The flat type has been extended to the north from Hissar mountains - in pool Zeravshana and in Fergana valley. Such house built on a socle, on the wooden skeleton which has been usually put in pawn by a brick. Sometimes walls put from beaten clay or from a brick. The roof was flat, earthen, with smearing from clay. Along a facade built a terrace. Under a ceiling did the narrow light apertures replacing windows.


     The fireplace or above fire cap with a flue was prominent feature of dwelling. In Gissar and Vahshsk valleys the dwelling had a little bit other design. Sometimes it was with double arch roof (often without a ceiling) or with double arch canopy over a traditional roof. In southern, mountain areas of Tajikistan of dwelling look like mountain, adapted for this condition, habitation. Such dwelling had a massive appearance, was the big sizes and is calculated on populous big, or the patriarchal, not divided families. Walls of such houses put from a wild stone, sometimes from brick.


     The wooden roof had feature, the most strongly pronounced in houses ofCustoms and traditions in Tajikistan Pamir Tadjiks, - the step wooden arch with light-smoke aperture in the centre. The roof was supported by three-five basic columns located in the house. In the plan this dwelling was single-chamber. Along two longitudinal and face (opposite to an input) walls the plank beds covered with clay, with narrow pass between them settled down. Today even in the remote mountain kishlaks of dwelling of an old design, without windows, usually use only as economic premises.


     The modern dwelling of Pamir Tadjiks keeps a traditional design, only the arches of a roof and basic columns are located in the house. The modern dwelling is considerably modernized: on a floor and plank beds now lay boards and paint them, do the big windows, instead of the centre use a different kind furnaces, internal and external walls bleach. As to dwellings of flat type their many traditional lines steadily enough remain and in the modern rural house.


In the past the big settlements and cities had a similar lay-out. In the centre the citadel surrounded with pise-walled walls towered. Round this most ancient part of settlement its later part with narrow streets on which there were blank walls of manors settled down. Behind a wall with several collars there were suburbs; here between manors arable lands, kitchen gardens and gardens settled down.


     The modern dwelling represents case block or stone constructions in which the typical furniture is placed, but many carpets are traditional in houses of Tadjiks. Inhabitants of Tajikistan lived many centuries in river valleys of foothills, in mountains, in oases. It meant traditional employment of the population. In areas of the Western Pamir Tadjiks grew up wheat, barley, a rye, and millet, bean, and garden and vine crop cultures. Here in valleys grew up a clap, were engaged in cultivation of gardens and vineyards. Traditionally inhabitants of Tajikistan were engaged in cattle breeding: planted sheep and goats, large horned livestock, and vahances and shungances planted yaks. Horses, yaks and donkeys were transport animals for the population of this republic. Old employment for Tadjiks was sericulture.


     From traditional national crafts Tadjiks have reached the greatest perfection in manufacturing of various silk, cotton, woolen and cloth fabrics. Certain cities were famous for manufacture of this or that kind of a fabric. Men were engaged in weaving. Products of the Tadjik masters used the big success: potters, smiths, jewelers, woodcarvers, to alabaster, and also a decorative embroidery in which ancient art traditions are traced.


     Customs and traditions in TajikistanThe traditional suit of Tadjiks in each area had the features, but possessed also the general lines. At men it consisted of a shirt tunic shaped breed, wide trousers and opened dressing gown with a belt-scarf, cap or a turban and local footwear: leather boots on a soft sole and leather galoshes with the pointed nose (them carried separately, and sometimes and together with soft boots - ichigs). Mountain Tadjiks had wooden footwear on three thorns for circulation on mountain tracks.


     As the general elements of traditional clothes at women tunic shaped breed, wide trousers with an ankle, a head scarf (the shirt or a dress served in some districts - tubeteyka and a scarf), and at townswomen and flat Tadzhiks also opened dressing gown and local footwear. The ethnic tradition also is now shown in clothes of flat and mountain Tadzhiks. The embroidered dresses of mountain Tadzhiks, especially in Darvaz and Kulyab, fine samples of national decorative art represent. Mountain Tadjiks, especially Pamir, and men and women, in a cold season carry knitted from a color wool high (to knees and above) socks with a beautiful geometrical or vegetative ornament.


     Today men put on mainly modern, so-called city, got in shops or the clothes sewed in studio: a suit or trousers with a shirt, a pullover, and a sweater. "Polo-necks", jeans are fashionable. In youth clothes sports style prevails. Townspeople often carry traditional tubeteyka and a dressing gown in a combination to a modern city suit.


     The modern female national suit keeps more than traditional lines even in a city. The dress enters into it, is frequent any more tunic shaped breed, and detachable, on the coquette. Sew it more often from silk, it widespread in all Asian republics. Carry also wide trousers (at girls and young women - it is considerable above an ankle and narrower), easy kerchiefs, scarves, tubeteykas. Widely there are also elements of a city suit: jackets, knitted woolen jackets, footwear of factory manufacturing or sewed in shoe studio. Depending on a season carry raincoats, a coat.


     In the past of outer clothing at mountain Tadzhiks at all was not: was considered, that in a cold season the woman should not leave the house. Pamir Tadzhiks at an exit from the house in winter put on themselves two-three dresses. In kishlaks modern city female suits, skirts carry seldom. In cities they are put on basically by students and young women - employees, representatives of intelligency. From ancient kinds of lady's wear the yashmak has disappeared; rural inhabitants did not carry it both in the past, and in the city environment it has been got rid in 1920th years.


     In its premilitary years still old women occasionally put on. In spite of the fact that many Tadjiks in cities and settlements carry modern clothes, at inhabitants of kishlaks, especially mountain districts, the national suit has remained. Beautiful tubeteykas, female head scarves, dresses, ornaments, the man's embroidered zone scarves, dressing gowns can be met and to this day. The female suit consists of the white or color dress-shirt sewed from silk or paper factory fabrics, the wide trousers reaching an ankle, their bottom is sheathed by a Patten band. Often wide trousers sew from two kinds of fabrics.


     At Pamir Tadjiks the traditional suit too is everywhere replaced with the modern. In modern clothes pamirians many the Tadjik elements, however they are borrowed not from traditional, and from a modern national suit of Tadjiks. The same character is carried by loans in the field of dwelling, and, in particular, an interior. The traditional food of Tadjiks depended not only on a solvency of families, but also from character of an economy: structure and a variety of cultivated cultures, kinds of planted cattle. In mountains where wheat and barley crops prevailed, inhabitants were engaged in cattle breeding, flat cakes, dairy products, a butter, and in flat districts in food of the population many vegetable dishes and fruit were the basic food bread.


     In a public life at Tadjiks some communal customs remained: various forms of collective mutual aid and industrial artels (for example, women collectively made dairy products on spring pastures), public meals and amusements in days of religious and national holidays. One of such holidays Nauruz - the New year falling to day of a spring equinox; coincided in many places with a holiday of day of the first ploughed land (carrying out of a ritual first furrow). Day of harvesting was celebrated also, were in custom of a walk - seyli in the spring.


     Though at Tadjiks small families prevailed, existed and much, especially in mountain areas, families not divided. There was also polygamy: under the Muslim law (Sheriyat) it was authorized to have four wives simultaneously, but it was accessible only to rich men; the person with an average condition had two wives, and poor men usually one. And in big, not divided, and in small monogamous families patriarchal usages dominated. In a family and in a society the woman occupied the belittled position. Mountain Tadjiks had bride money, i.e. the repayment for the bride.


     In family ceremonies of Tadjiks regional distinctions have remained. So, on an example, at Tadjiks of northern areas, according to an ancient wedding ceremony, newly married transport in the house of the husband after a sunset, at light of torches and lead round a fire lighted before the house of the husband three times. In Southern Tajikistan for a long time this moving occurs only in the afternoon. Only the widow or dissolved transport at night.


     Transformation of social relations, familiarizing of Tadjiks with advanced culture have sharply changed also their family life. Today the woman is liberated and occupies position equal in rights with the man on manufacture, in a public life, and in family. Marriages consist now in overwhelming majority on mutual love. Children in Tajikistan a special exclusive class. In families of Tadjiks it is a lot of children. It is pleasant to look at black-eyed boys in national tubeteykas and girls in national dresses in modern interpretation with the braided 30-40 thin plaits.